Monuments to Enterprise

In 1693 a man was born who would change the country’s postal service and create the City of Bath as we know it.

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Ralph Allen

Ralph Allen was from Cornwall and from a very early age he helped his grandmother run the St Columb’s post office. In 1708 he went to work for Joseph Quash, the Exeter post master. About a year later Quash was granted the contract to extend the cross post between Exeter and Oxford via Bath. When Mrs Mary Collins, the post mistress of Bath, resigned in 1712 over allegations of nepotism, Allen was appointed in her place. Allen built his reputation on hard work and honesty, gaining the friendship and backing of notable people. In 1715 Allen came across a Jacobite plot and informed General George Wade who successfully confiscated a shipment of arms and horse from the West. Wade built a house in Bath and was elected MP for Bath in 1722.

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General George Wade’s House with the later Regency Shop Front 

Wade’s house dates from about 1720 and is architecturally important as it is the first house in Bath to use the Palladian giant order. There is no documentary evidence as to who was the original architect, various names have been put forward such Thomas Greenway who was probably responsible for an adjoining property. Lord Burlington has also been mentioned simply because he designed Wade’s house in Cork Street London.

In 1718 the Countess of Kingston was granted the lease of the Post House in Lilliput Alley, on a property dating from c1620. Ralph Allen became the subtenant in the same year and ran his business from the building. In 1720 he successfully negotiated his first contract with the General Post Office for taking over the cross post between Exeter and Oxford and all bye-posts. The contracts were renewable every seven years, which he did up until his death. He completely reformed the postal service, opening up more routes, allowing mail to be delivered efficiently and securely throughout England, eventually without having to go via London. In the beginning he ran the business at a loss, but as time went on and he introduced his new methods he became a wealthy man.

Allen a young man with a head for business, created his own luck, he was the right person in the right place at the right time. He married his first wife in 1721, Elizabeth the daughter of a London merchant and his fortunes were on the rise. When Wade became MP, he was able to help Allen, as a result Allen became chief treasurer of the Avon Navigation Scheme in 1725. The scheme was to improve access between the Port of Bristol and Bath by deepening the river, bringing down the cost and ease of transporting goods. It would also provide an alternative means of transport for potential visitors to the spa resort, especially when the road system was dangerous and impassable at times. The same year saw him become freeman of the city and a member of the council.

Ralph Allen’s Town House

In 1722 Ralph Allen acquired the lease on the Post House in Lilliput Alley. He built a north wing, which was originally attached, at a right angle so its principal front faces east and overlooked a large garden. The new Palladian front contained a rusticated ground floor with a central wide arch with narrow arched openings on either side. Above this is a large central arched window with rectangular windows on either side there are blind balustrades at the base of each window. There are three smaller windows on the second floor, sandwiched by four columns with moulded bases on plain pedestals with Corinthian capitals. The steeply pitched triangular pediment is framed by a modillioned cornice with three acroterial ornaments of stone balls. The centre contains a small circular opening surrendered by elaborate scrolled foliage. From the windows he could view Claverton Down. There is a pen and ink 18th century drawing showing the town house as a U shaped mansion with wings on either side, this has been disputed for making the property grander and larger than it actually was. At a later date it was subdivided into three properties, the original Post House became 1 and 2 North Parade Passage; the detached north wing is now known as the Ralph Allen Town House.

In 1726 Allen bought land south of the River Avon, which included the Combe Down followed by Bathampton Down mines in 1727. These underground workings had been used since Roman times to extract Oolite limestone for building. The stone had to be mined rather than quarried, this hilly area around Bath was a mass of honeycombed excavations. The top layer of stone was suitable for paving and the Lower layers could be used for building, but the process was not straightforward. Though the stone is relatively easy to extract, because it is soft and can be sawn in any direction, it needs after care. The honey coloured stone must be allowed to mature in the open air for weeks so the water drains away. The stone dries out and becomes a pale white or grey colour. When building a wall the stone must be laid in the same position as it was extracted from the mine or otherwise it will crack and decay.

Allen experienced a very negative response to Bath stone when he tried to obtain the contract to supply building material for Greenwich Hospital in 1728. The Governors preferred the cheaper Portland Stone. To counteract this negativity he needed to undertake a large building project to show off the versatility of the stone closer to home.

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Principal Front of Prior Park

Prior Park was designed by John Wood the Elder based on designs by Andrea Palladio. The property would consist of a central house with wings on either side connected by arcades. The wings would be used for administration of his postal business and stables. The principal front is the north facade overlooking the park where the ground falls away down to lake. The Portico has six giant columns with an additional full column on either return and a half column against the building wall. The columns have moulded bases and the plain shafts are topped with Roman Corinthian capitals. These support an entablature with a triangular pediment. The balustrade on the parapet flanks either side of the triangular pediment and is above each window, which is segmented by a plain solid section.  The whole house would be used to publicise the wonders of Bath stone. Every Thursday afternoon he opened the grounds to the public to showcase the wonders of Bath Stone. The beautiful gardens were full of ornate features and statues as examples of the stones versatility.

Bath Stone can vary in type and from quarry to quarry, therefore the stone proved to be versatile. Once the Kennet and Avon canal was completed in November 1810, it enabled a more efficient and cost effective means of transporting the quarried stone to London. Its use for building in London and beyond became more wide spread.

Unfortunately Prior Park ended Allen and Wood’s friendship and working relationship. Wood’s design was in the style of a Palladian villa and based to some extent on Colen Campbell’s Wanstead House design, which appeared in Vitruvius Britannicus (1715), and was never built. Wood’s design was altered by Richard Jones the Clerk of Works, causing an argument between Wood and Allen, resulting in Wood’s dismissal. Jones completed to his own design the east wing as one pavilion instead of two, and completely changed the west wing’s intended appearance as a Palladian agricultural building.

Allen purchased the lower slopes in 1743 and created the lakes and Richard Jones built a Palladian Bridge in 1755. This is a copy of the bridge at Wilton Wiltshire designed by Robert Morris (1737), and to a lesser extent the bridge at Stowe in Aylesbury Vale Buckinghamshire attributed to James Gibbs (1738). The roofed bridge has two end pavilions with an open colonnade with four Ionic columns on either side. Unlike Wilton the width between the middle columns on either side is wider. Also the ceiling is plain plaster with a simple entablature, whereas Wilton’s ceiling is coffered and the entablature is carved.

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Palladian Bridge

The Open Colonnade and the Ionic Columns

In 1830 Prior Park became a Catholic College it has endured two fires, the first severely damaged the interior in 1836, which was rebuilt using the salvaged interior of Huntstrete House, Marksbury Somerset. The major damage to the building was a result of the 1991 fire. It started in the roof and the downward destruction eventually obliterated the roof, third floor and a majority of the second floor. Half of the first floor and two thirds of the ground floor survived. The massive work of reconstructing the building was undertaken and completed in 1995.

Prior Park college is a Catholic independent co-educational public school and the  28 acres of landscaped gardens and pleasure grounds have been the property of the National Trust since 1993.

Allen moved into Prior Park in 1735 living in one wing while the work progressed on the main block. Two years later he purchased Bathampton Manor the home of his second wife’s family, it became the residence of his brother Philip Allen (1694-1765). Later he built a house in Weymouth as a summer residence for his wife. The final edition to his property portfolio was Claverton Manor. Ralph Allen purchased Claverton Manor for £18,000 in 1752 as it adjoined Prior Park and consisted of 1300 acres, a great edition to his landscaped park. Though he did not live in the Elizabethan manor House he occasionally used it as a entertainment venue.

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The American Museum

In 1817 John Vivian, a barrister purchased the manor and built a large house above the village. This new Claverton Manor is now the American Museum. The original property was not maintained and ultimately demolished in 1823. The remains of the original manor house’s terrace garden is grade 11* listed. The lower terraces still retain the garden walls of pierced strap work stone, with two balustrades. There are gate piers with pierced stone obelisks and iron gates.

Pierced Strap Work Stone Wall

Pierced Stone Obelisks and Garden View

In 1764 Robert Parsons recorded in his commonplace book of a meeting with Ralph Allen to discuss designs for tombstones and memorials, the next day Allen died. It is believed that Allen’s mausoleum in the churchyard of St Mary’s Church Claverton is the work of Robert Parsons.

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St Mary’s Church Claverton 

Robert Parsons was a stonemason who made his living carving garden vases, ornaments and chimneys from Bath stone, though he also worked in marble producing chimneypieces and monuments. In 1751 he became a Baptist minister in Bath, and a year later he built a meeting house in Southgate Street. He also built a meeting house for the Anabaptists in Horse Street. He was employed by both John Wood the Elder and Sanderson Miller, working on the Bristol Exchange and the new gothic hall at Laycock Abbey.

Ralph Allen’s Mausoleum

Ralph Allen’s mausoleum is a square grade 11* structure of ashlar raised on two steps. The walls comprised of three arches each side, which were originally open, but at a later date railings were inserted. Behind the ashlar parapet the stone slab roof rises to a pyramidal shape. Below the parapet is a moulded cornice echoing the moulding on the arches piers and the tombs cornice.

View of Arches and Pyramidal Shape Roof

On the interior the pyramid has a vaulted ceiling, and the mausoleum contains a stone chest tomb with inscribed marble inserts. The tomb contains not only Allen and his second wife, but later members of the family, the last interned was in 1993. The mausoleum was restored in 1975 by Bath Preservation Trust.

Interior Vaulted Roof and the Stone Chest Tomb

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

The Pleasure Palace of Knowledge

On the death of her brother, an elderly spinster spent the last eight years of her life trying to secure a future for his vast collection. She had hoped that the collection would be located in the Sydney Hotel, but sadly this did not happen in her life time. The collection had been gathered by William or Thomas William Holburne, to be accurate, who came from a distinguished naval family. At the age of eleven he joined the navy and served on HMS Orion at the Battle of Trafalgar. On the death of his elder brother Francis in 1814 from a septic wound received at the Siege of Bayonne, he became heir to his father’s title, and left the navy.  When his father died in 1820 he became Sir William Holburne, the fifth Baronet of Menstrie, and embarked on the Grand Tour. This experience obviously sowed the seed for his life long passion for collecting. Over the years he was content to stay unmarried and devoted himself to collecting, with the death of his aunt Catherine Cussars, William and his siblings received a trust fund. He now had more resources  to purchase items from auctions and sales. When his family originally moved to Bath in 1802, they lived at No 7 Lansdown Place West, and were near neighbours of Sir William Beckford. Now Holburne was able to own some of Beckford’s collection when it was sold after his death in 1844. Some of Holburne’s collection featured in exhibitions in Leeds, London and Paris during his lifetime.

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7 Lansdown Place West

In 1829 William and his three unmarried sisters moved to 10 Cavendish Crescent. The ground and first floor rooms, 127.184 square metres of the house, became a backdrop for his pictures, porcelain, Wedgwood, Maiolica, silver, glass and Renaissance bronzes. It was Mary Anne Barbara, the only survivor of the four, who devoted her last years to carrying out his wish to provide Bath with its first art museum.

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10 Cavendish Crescent

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1871 Census showing William Holburne, his sisters and servants

In 1893, eleven years after her death, the collection was in its new home and on show to the public as the Holburne of Menstrie Museum. The Trustees purchased Bath Saving Bank on Charlotte Street, by auction for £2,400 in October 1890 by borrowing the money, and then sold Cavendish Crescent in January 1891 for £1,210. The collection was in a new location, but did not open to the public until 1893 due to financial difficulties.

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Old Bath Saving Bank, Charlotte Street

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Architect’s Drawings for the Museum on Charlotte Street

William Holburne had hoped that his collection would be the first art museum in Bath. But in 1900 the Victoria Art Gallery opened in a building adjoining the Guildhall. This gallery was possible because of a bequest left by Mrs Roxburgh to build an art gallery. It was presumed that Holburne’s collection would eventually be housed in the new gallery. Unfortunately the Trustees for Holburne’s sister were hostile to the suggestion, stating it was her bequest and nothing to do with the corporation. Holburne’s collection remained independent in its 163.788 square metres of space, and the new gallery became the home for the Council’s art collection and a public library.

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Victoria Art Gallery

In late 1904 the Trustees sought professional advice on the condition of the pictures, though relieved to find they needed little attention, unfortunately the report stated that they had the wrong attributions. A new curator was employed to rehang and produce a new catalogue for the collection. In present times this would not have been considered a catastrophe, artwork is consistently reassessed. The curator did not handle the situation in an acceptable manner, which ultimately lead to unfavourable publicity in the national newspapers. Though the attributions might have changed and the knowledge to assess them, the quality of the paintings had not. Not allowing this set back spoil the Trustees’s plans they moved forward and procured a new location for the collection.

The Trustees were right to wait because a large Georgian building with surrounding grounds became available, which was located in Bathwick. The Sydney Hotel was conceived by Thomas Baldwin in the early 1790s for his scheme which would include pleasure gardens in a hexagonal enclosure, based on the successful Vauxhall Gardens in London, and would have played an important part in the Bath season. This scheme was part of a larger plan that was the dream of William Pulteney who owned the Bathwick Estate. The original plan was designed by Adam and the first stage was to build Pulteney Bridge to connect Bathwick Estate with the City. (See “Gateway To A Scheme).

After Pulteney’s death his daughter favoured Thomas Baldwin to design a new layout for the estate. Baldwin was Bath City architect and surveyor, other than John Wood and his son, he has contributed more than any other architect to designing Bath.

Pulteney Bridge was a gateway to a new development on the Bathwick Estate situated to the east of the City. As the populous passed between the magnificent porticos (demolished), and crossed the bridge a magnificent vista stood before them. Passing down Argyle Street along Great Pulteney Street, all designed by Baldwin, its beautiful majestic terrace of houses with the prize at the end. The palatial Sydney House, as it was known, and the gardens, a place to see and be seen.

 Great Pulteney Street and the Holburne Museum 

His design was for the hotel to be two-storey, with single storey two bay wings on either side that were set back from the facade, including a Corinthian portico. Due to his bankruptcy as a result of the failure of the Bath Bank, curtailing several building projects in the city, his design was not used and instead a three-storey design by Charles Harcourt Masters was completed in 1799. This became the entrance to the pleasure gardens, known as Bath Vauxhall Gardens. Harcourt Masters’ design originally included a loggia, an open colonnade with three bays on either side. The bays were eventually replaced by a blind rusticated wall. At the rear of the building was a conservatory protruding from the 1st floor with three large windows. The central window allowed access to the bandstand, which was a semicircular attachment open to the elements surrounded by an iron balcony. The conservatory and bandstand were supported on Corinthian columns. As visitors passed through the archway into the gardens there were two crescents of open supper boxes. The building had card rooms, provided tea and coffee for the visitors, with a ballroom on the first floor. In the basement was a public house, allowing the visitors’ servants, coachmen and chairmen a place for refreshments. In 1836 John Pinch the younger undertook alterations to the hotel and an attic-storey was added. With the Great Western Railway line bisecting the pleasure gardens and the hotel becoming a college, with several structures constructed around the hotel, such as a gymnasium, the pleasure gardens were not as grand and Bath’s status as a health resort was also in decline.

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Plan of Sydney Gardens with Railway Line

Miss Holburne became aware that Sydney College was for sale. Unfortunately she delayed drafting a codicil for her will and died three days later on 21 June 1882, her Trustees were unable to act as all the documents had not been completed.

Eventually in the late 1880s the college closed and proposals were put forward to enlarge the building into a new hotel. Interestingly the Holburne Trustees had tried to procure the building from the Sydney Gardens Company for £1250. In April 1888 the Trustees wrote directly to the Duke of Cleveland who owned the land freehold, in the hope of lifting the restrictive covenants. “… with the consent of your Grace and therefore our purchase from the Sydney Gardens Company has been made conditional on your Grace permitting it to be used as a museum.” They were unsuccessful, losing out to a proposed hotel project, which also proved to be unsuccessful in 1896, as there were hotels under construction in the centre of Bath.

In 1906 a distant cousin of Miss Holburne died and her money from the family trust fund was able to boost the Holburne Charity’s funds. After loans and debts were settled the collection was in a better financial position.

After the college vacated in the late 1880s the building was empty and became dilapidated. The City Corporation acquired the Gardens in 1910 and the building and two acres of land were sold for £2,650 to the Holburne Trustees in 1912. The Trustees had commissioned Reginald Blomfield in 1910, before the purchase, to work on plans for the transformation into a museum. Blomfield was a very distinguished architect, historian and garden designer. He was President of RIBA (1912-14), and his large practice undertook private and commercial work. He came to the project with nearly twenty years of experience in building large country houses and renovating and extending existing ones. His initial designs were very grand with a large dome and included landscaping the garden.

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Reginald Blomfield’s 1913 Design with a Grand Dome

Unfortunately the Trustees had a maximum allowable expenditure of £10,000, therefore new designs were provided excluding the gardens and the grand dome. It is interesting that Charles Harcourt Masters’ finished design for the Sydney Hotel was very similar to Thomas Baldwin’s Guildhall. If Blomfield’s design had been accepted it would have bared more than a passing resemblance.

Bath Guildhall Designed by Thomas Baldwin 

Blomfield gutted the interior in order to provide gallery space. The first floor was enlarged by removing the ceiling and creating an impressive museum space by combining the two floor.

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Plan for the Museum Gallery on the Taller First Floor

Pinch’s attic storey now became the second floor picture gallery. The central windows were removed as the new second floor gallery was now lit by three roof lights, instead of the dome.

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Plan for the new Second Floor Picture Gallery

The ground floor space was divided up into accommodation and administration space. The Curator had a bedroom and bathroom at the rear of the building. The caretaker and his wife were at the front of the building with a kitchen and sitting room. The caretaker’s wife cooked for all residents. The Trustees used the committee room for their meetings.

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Plan of the Ground Floor

At the rear of the building a new open stone staircase rising full height through the building, was designed to take visitors to the galleries on the first and second floors. The metal rail and balustrade was topped by urns without flames.

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A Cross Section of the Building showing Staircase 

Various Views of the Staircase 

By greatly altering the layout of the internal space, he was able to improve exterior appearance. He removed the row of five small square windows below the cornice. These were replaced with framed oval medallions with husk drops for the middle and two outer bays, and square tablets with feet and gutter for the others. The side wings were replaced with a colonnade of Doric columns and a balustraded parapet and flaming urns echoing the roof line. The roof line now included a central decorative piece of blind balustrades and together with the roof corners, they were topped with flaming urns.

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Blomfield’s 1914 Design for the Front Elevation

Blomfield removed the semicircular conservatory and bandstand from the rear of the building. It was replaced by a slightly protruding section with tripartite windows to the first and second floors. The rear exit through the building to the garden was blocked, the property was now a museum rather than an entrance to the pleasure gardens.

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Blomfield’s 1914 Design for Rear Elevation

In 1916 the museum opened to the public, it was the new home of William’s collection of 4,000 items, in 298.126 square metres of gallery space.

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The Front Elevation

The museum closed towards the end of 2008 for major redevelopment work, the reopening in 2011 saw the conclusion to the hard fought battle for Eric Parry’s controversial extension.

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View of Extension from Sydney Gardens

An ultra modern design to be connected to a Grade 1 listed Georgian building. The purpose of the extension was to reunite the building with the park, something people had enjoyed doing in the eighteenth century. The supper boxes of the original Sydney Hotel have now been reincarnated as a cafe, that in fine weather spills out into the gardens.

View of and from the Cafe

As well as including a cafe, education facilities and restoring access to the gardens it extended the exhibition space. Prior to the building of the extension only 40% of the exhibits were on show, the space has now allowed the opportunity for the public to see more of the collection.

William Holburne’s Collection in the Extension Gallery

The extension is not built with the sacred honey coloured Bath stone, but with layers of glass and moulded mottled distressed dark green ceramic.

View of the Mottled Distressed Dark Green Ceramic Cladding

The facade according to RIBA “creates a sophisticated play of shadows, light and reflection – beautiful and unique, …” The design is inspired from the outside the glass reflects the trees, and the ceramic emulates the trees, from the inside the view is the trees through the glass.

The Trees Reflected in the Glass

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

The Work of Angels

Buildings, gardens and objects have been created to send a strong message to the wider public of how wealthy or powerful, or both, the individual was at the time of its creation. For many it was a means of leaving a legacy, which allowed them to live forever, a living monument. In the case of the Pantheon its longevity is a tribute to not only to Hadrian but to the incredible knowledge of the Roman Empire.

The Pantheon is the epitome of the power of place. The structure has endured 2,000 years. The surrounding scenery may have changed over the years and the overall use of the building adapted to current beliefs. But the residual theme has remained the same; the power of place and the sense of place has endured in the power of the magnificent architecture and the beauty of the interior.

This amazing building is located in the Piazza della Rotonda in Rome. To sit in the Piazza with a glass of wine, staring at this wondrous edifice imagining how it would have looked with its gilded bronze tiles, the golden dome glowing in the sunlight. The tiles were removed in 663 by the Byzantine emperor Constans II and later they were stolen. The interior is beautiful but it would have originally had bronze encasing on the wooden beams and ceiling of the portico. The interior of the dome would have included gold rosettes in the centre of each coffer. So we will have to use our imagination. It was Pope Urban VIII who is responsible for removing the bronze, which weighed about 181 metric tons, and it was recycled into eighty cannons. At a later date it was used again to cover the canopy over the altar in Saint Peter’s Basilica.

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The roof of the Portico would have originally been covered in bronze

Sometime between 27 and 25 BCE General Marcus Vipsanuis Agrippa ordered the building of a monument to the harmony of the universe. It was built for his father-in-law Emperor Augustus and dedicated to the seven celestial gods for the cult of Augustus. Unfortunately the building was destroyed by fire in 80 CE, Emperor Domitian took on the task of rebuilding the monument.

In 110 CE during the reign of Emperor Trajan, the temple was struck by lightening resulting in another devastating fire. A building that was dedicated to the gods did not seem to have their protection, was this a sign of their disapproval. The Campus Martuis, a large public area fell into disrepair and remained an eye sore. The baton was passed to the next emperor to conquer this site and appease the gods.

Publuis Aeluis Hadrianus was supposedly adopted by Emperor Trajan, his father’s cousin, on his death bed in 117 CE. Unfortunately Hadrian was not present at the time and the document had been signed by Trajan’s wife Plotina, it was highly suspect. Hadrian was a soldier, who was popular with the legions and he travelled throughout the empire gaining their support, in return they proclaimed him emperor.

As well as a soldier, Hadrian was a painter, sculptor, poet and from an early age he had a great interest in architecture. On his return to Rome in 118 CE he set to work rebuilding the Temple of All the Gods. Hadrian’s decision to change the design and orientation of the temple has been vindicated as the Pantheon has stood largely intact for nearly 2000 years.

The Pantheon was given to Pope Boniface IV in 608, which had fallen into ruin. The interior had been used to house animals and was over grown with trees and vegetation. He cleared the interior and restored the drains. He also removed the statues of the Roman gods, as the building was consecrated and became the church of Saint Mary among the Martyrs.

The City of Rome had been extensively burnt in the fire of 64CE, Nero passed regulations to put measures in place for future building. Restricting the use of inflammable building materials. Romans elevated the problem by using concrete. This material is fast setting pozzolana containing volcanic ash, which will even set under water. This new material allowed the Romans to build arches and domes.

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A simple floor plan of the Pantheon

The main body of the building, the rotunda was constructed out of brick and concrete. The walls of this large drum are six metres thick and together with the rectangular concrete vestibule that connects the portico to the rotunda, takes the weight of the dome. The Campus Martius was close to the River Tiber and as a consequence the ground was marshy. As a result the foundations for the Pantheon had to be substantial as the dome alone weighs 4,535 tons. They were conscience that they could help to reduce the overall weight through the design of the building and adapting the materials to compensate.

As the ground was swampy a foundation was dug and filled with concrete. Two circular brick walls were built on the foundation pad and sandwiched between was the concrete. The walls and concrete were constructed in layers of 0.6 metres high, allowing for each layer to become firm before the next layer was constructed. The surface of the interior wall had to include spaces for the various wall niches and bays. Placed on top of the rotunda is a perfect hemisphere with a diameter of 43 metres.

An interior view showing the bays and niches

The recipe for Roman concrete consists of sand, lime, volcanic ash, and aggregate. They altered the consistency of the recipe as they constructed the layers of the dome.  The base layer of the dome contains a bulky consistency of concrete with large pieces of aggregate. As the wall of the dome rose up to the Oculus the consistency of aggregate became much finer, which obviously helped combat the weight. The important design feature of the coffers also meant less concrete was needed and produced a very decorative effect. The dome is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.

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The Oculus and the Coffers which would originally have rosettes in their centres 

In the centre of the dome is an Oculus, the only light source for the interior. The Oculus is open to the elements and when it rains, the problem is solved by the floor sloping towards the centre and the water exits via a drainage system. As the sun travels across the sky, the beam of light travels round the interior.

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Interior of the Rotunda with the beam shining on the wall

This has led to the belief that the building was also celebrating the sun god. When the Pantheon was originally built a statue of Jupiter was located directly under the Oculus. Jupiter was the most important of the Roman gods, he was considered the protector of the city and the state of Roman. One among many of his responsibilities was as Jupiter Lucetuis in charge of the Sun and Moonlight.

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Corinthian columns supporting a blank pediment which originally contained a sculptured frieze

The triangular pediment is supported by columns of grey granite, with Corinthian capitals and bases of white Pentelic marble. The columns are 12 metres tall with a 1.5 metre diameter and weigh 60 tons each. They were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus in the eastern desert and transported on wooden sledges more than a 100 km to the River Nile. A journey which was downhill all the way. They were then conveyed by barges to Alexandria for the crossing to Ostia, where they continued along the River Tiber to Rome.

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These old bronze doors measure are 12 metres high, but sadly they are not the original

Originally the main entrance would have been reached by climbing steps, entering through the portico into the cella, a small rectangular room, via the magnificent bronze doors which would have been covered in gold. The climbing up to the building would have signified its importance.

We have to thank Boniface for rescuing the Pantheon and the Renaissance period for its appreciation by people such as Michelangelo, Raphael and Andrea Palladio. Palladio was so captivated by the Pantheon that it was to influence his designs for the rest of his career. Over the years it has been the inspiration for many architects such as Brunelleschi, Bernini, Inigo Jones, and Thomas Jefferson, to name but a few, to go on and create some of the most beautiful buildings around the world.

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Tomb of Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (Raphael)

It was Raphael’s final wish to be interned in the Pantheon. His request was honoured by Pope Gregory XVI who also provided the sarcophagus, when he died in 1520 at the age of 37.

Tombs of King Vittorio Emanuele II and King Umberto I

The National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs was founded in 1878. They were originally chartered by the House of Savoy, but were allowed to continue with the authority of the Italian Republic. The guard consists mostly of Italian army veterans who volunteer to stand guard over the tombs of King Vittorio Emanuele II and King Umberto I.

 

The photos and artwork are from the author’s own collection.

A Meeting of Minds

The Piazza di Spagna has been the location of the Spanish Embassy to the Vatican City since the 17th century. It was also the residential location for foreign visitors from the 17th to the 19th century. Tobias Smolett , the well known 18th century writer and surgeon, wrote a book about his experiences of travelling in France and Italy. This 1766 book describes the history and social life of the places he visited, giving his own opinion about diet and morals, and guiding future travellers on how to conduct themselves. He declared that “Here most of the English reside”.

But it was not only the English, other nations were represented too and were drawn to the area; artists, writers and musicians frequented the Piazza and the nearby streets. The meeting place for some of the most talented and influential people of their times. Franz Liszt, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henrik Ibsen, Honore de Balzac, Hans Christian Andersen, Felix Mendelssohn, Henry James, as well as Lord Byron, Oscar Wilde, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and Robert Browning, to name but a few.

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The Piazza di Spagna “Here most of the English reside” Smolett

The Piazza is famous for the Scalinata di Trinita Dei Monti, know as the Spanish Steps, which were built between 1723 to 1726, to connect the Santissima Trinita dei Monti with the Piazza. Charles VIII of France purchased land in order to found a convent for the French order of San Francesco di Paola. He also provided money to build a church the Santissima Trinita dei Monti. Approval was given by Pope Alessandro VI and construction started in 1502 using stone from Narbonne in France. The Gothic church’s towers were not built until 1580-87 when, by then, the style was out of favour. The church’s design can not be attributed to any one architect.

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Santissima Trinità dei Monti and Third Century Obelisk

Plans to build the steps date back to the 1580s when the church was built. The plans did not proceed due to a lack of funds. It was not until 1660 when money was left to the church for the project, by a French diplomat Etienne Gueffier who had left the money in his will for the sole purpose. Mazarin, Louis XIV’s Cardinal, took over the project but unfortunately it stalled again due to Gueffier’s nephew contesting the will; and Pope Alessandro VIII taking exception to the idea of the equestrian statue of Louis XIV as part of the design. Sixty six years later the steps were finally completed. The 135 Baroque style steps  were designed by the Italian architect Francesco De Sanctis, who was favoured by the French. There were diplomatic negotiations between the Vatican and French officials to make sure the completed work represented both nations.

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Keats-Shelly Museum viewed from Spanish Steps

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Keats-Shelley Museum viewed from front with original shop front with flour-de-lis symbol above

At the base of the steps, the buildings on either side were designed by Francesco de Sanctis and constructed by the French. The Casino Rossa on the right of the steps was designed as a purpose built shop with accommodation above. It is now the Keats-Shelley Museum, but was originally a boarding house where John Keats lived for three months before he died on 23rd February 1821. John Keats originally studied medicine at Guy’s Hospital registering in October 1815, and became a licensed apothecary in 1816. He was promoted to a Dresser allowing him to dress wounds, set bones and assist with surgery. In July he passed the examinations to become a surgeon and took a summer break in Margate. Keats’ first love had been literature and though he continued to write poetry, his medical studies were taking up to much of his time.  After spending his summer holiday writing, he returned to London and on the 31st October at the age of 21 he began practicing as a surgeon. In December 1816 his sonnet On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer was published in The Examiner, it was the turning point, he was disillusioned with medicine and now he could justify a change of career. Sometime after this period Keats started to take mercury for an unspecified illness, possibly veneral disease, though he was well aware how dangerous this medication was, by the summer of 1818 he was already showing signs of mercury poisoning. Towards the end of 1818 he was caring for his brother Tom who had contracted tuberculosis, because of Keats’ weakened system it was inevitable that he would also contract tuberculosis. Tom sadly died on 1 December 1818. Keats continued to write, and by the summer of 1819 he was ill with the first stage of tuberculosis. In February he started to haemorrhage, from the colour of the blood he knew he was dying.  It was decided that he should travel to Italy for the winter.

On the 13 September he left England for Naples with his friend Joseph Severn, the artist. They spent ten days in quarantine before arriving in Rome on the 14 November. He became a patient of Sir James Clark who had set up a practice in Rome, and took up residence in the Casino Rossa in the Plazza di Spagna. Clark’s diagnosis was consumption and to counteract the effects of the mercury, which damages the stomach, he  prescribed a starvation diet and blood letting. Keats as a physician was well aware that it was futile. He died at the age 25 and during his very short life he produced some beautiful poems. Keats had been invited to Pisa by his friend Percy Bysshe Shelley, Keats hoped he would visit him after his stay in Rome. Shelley wrote Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats upon hearing of his death. A year later when Shelley drowned there was a small copy of the Keats’ poetry in his pocket.

After the death of Keats the furniture, curtains, wallpaper and his personal property were burnt to stop the spread of disease and infection, this was decreed by Vatican Law. He was buried in the Protestant Cemetery, Shelley’s ashes were also interned here and they were joined by Joseph Severn in 1879.

The room where Keats died, the ceiling, fireplace and flooring are the only original features left.

Over the years the house fell into disrepair, but it was still attracting attention as the site where Keats died. By 1903 two American ladies were living there and showing visitors around. Eventually in 1906 a group of English, American and Italians raised the money to purchase the rundown Casino Rossa and after restoration it was formally opened in December 1909. Over the years the house suffered from only being available to the academics and its future was uncertain. In 1976 Sir Joseph Cheyne, Bt became curator and worked tirelessly to change the image; he encouraged school parties and made the house a tourist attraction. When Cheyne retired in 1990 its visitors numbered 11,000. The property is owned by the Keats-Shelley Memorial Association, a British charity, it is run as a commercial business open six days a week, all year round except for one week in December. The house’s running costs are covered by the admission fee, a gift shop and the rental income. It has a library of over eight thousand books devoted to English Romanticism, holds various events, exhibitions and poetry readings. They have a book club, competitions, awards and a website doing a successful job to keep the memory of the dead poet alive.

In the centre of the Piazza is located an unusual fountain shaped like a sinking boat. The Fontana della Barcaccia was designed by Petro Bernini. The water for the fountain was supplied from the Acqua Vergine, one of the Roman aqueducts constructed by Consul and Architect Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Bernini’s design of a leaking boat compensated for the minimal water pressure. The fountain was commissioned by Pope Urban VIII in 1623. It was started in 1627 and completed after his death in 1629 by his son Gian Lorenzo Bernini. John Keats could hear the water flowing from the fountain and requested that the epitaph on his headstone should read: Here lies one whose name was writ in water.

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The Piazza and Fontana della Barcaccia viewed from Keats-Shelley Museum

As previously mentioned the Piazza di Spagna was the area where English tourists congregated and as a nation we are very fond of a cup of tea. Two ladies who arrived in Italy in 1893 were able to exploit this need in order to make a successful business which is still flourishing today. Babington’s Tea Rooms can be found on the left side of the steps.

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Babington’s Tea Rooms

When the English Anna Maria Babington and the New Zealand Isabel Cargill arrived in Rome they invested their £100 in opening a tea rooms on the Via dei Due Macelli, close to the piazza. Obviously it was a resounding success, as it provided the comforts of home for the weary tourist, and the next year they relocated to the building on the left side of the steps.

In 1910 Annie Cargill the sister of Isabel, arrived in Rome and opened the Hotel Londra & Cargill on the corner of Via Collina and the Piazza Sallustio. The hotel is a large building dating from the 1800s and is open to this day. Unfortunately the tea room business was effected by the outbreak of the first world war and this continued into the 1920s. Anna Maria moved to Switzerland due to ill health and sadly died of a heart attack. Isabel’s daughter Dorothy, from her marriage to the Italian artist Giuseppe da Pozzo, took over the management of the tea rooms. Annie invested money in the tea rooms, they were refurbished and business started to pick up again. Throughout the second world war the family left Rome, when they returned after the war they found out that the staff had kept the tea rooms open using their own rations. This family run business is still as successful as ever, and has built up a worldwide following through its website and sales of its merchandise.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

Gateway To A Scheme

 

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When John Wood the Elder was building Bath he was aware of Bathwick’s 600 acres, a prime location on the other side of the river Avon. In 1726 the land was purchased by William Pulteney MP for Hedon in Yorkshire, who later became the Earl of Bath. The land had sitting tenants who held life leases, these were gradually transferred to short leases, which took time. When Pulteney died sixteen years later the land was still a rural parish. The land and his wealth passed to his brother General Henry Pulteney, as his son and heir had died the previous year. Henry died three years later and his second cousin Frances Johnstone, daughter of Daniel Pulteney MP, inherited everything except for the title which became extinct.

Frances had married William Johnstone on the 10 November 1760. They had met when Johnstone had arrived in London and secured a post in Customs and Excise. He was the son of a Scottish Baronet from Dumfries, a successful Edinburgh lawyer and partner in the Dumfries bank. They returned to Edinburgh living an ordinary life with their daughter Henrietta Laura, until Frances inherited this immense fortune.

Johnstone changed their name to Pulteney and moved back to London taking up residence in Bath House, Piccadilly. Pulteney entered Parliament spending his time in politics and managing his wife’s London and Bath estates. He now took on a new role as property developer in Bath.

Bath Corporation had plans for the city which included a new guildhall and market space; Pulteney believed it was his opportunity to increase the value of his wife’s land on the other side of the river. He entered into negotiations with the Corporation to discuss his idea for a bridge linking Bath with the Bathwick estate. On 2nd January 1769 they gave their consent. After obtaining a private Act of Parliament as the land was held in trust, he was able to proceed. He purchased some land north of the area designated for development by the Corporation, this would ultimately be the location for the access point for Pulteney’s bridge across the river.

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Robert Adam’s Design for Pulteney Bridge

After obtaining an initial low key design from Thomas Paty, Pulteney approached Robert Adam. Adam together with his brothers John, James and William were working on the Adelphi Buildings, a large neoclassical scheme in London between the Strand and the River Thames. The Adam brothers were sons of the very successful Scottish architect William Adam. Robert and James travelled abroad visiting Italy. Robert spent nearly four years studying with Charles-Louis Clerisseau and Giovanni Battista Piranesi. The Adam brothers set up their practice in London designing complete schemes, designing every detail of the finished project. Pulteney believed Robert Adam was the architect capable of producing spectacular plans for the bridge and a development on the east side of the river.

The influence for Adam’s design came from his time in Italy visiting Florence and Venice. The Ponte Vecchio and the Ponte di Rialto are two beautiful shop lined bridges. His design was inspired by Andrea Palladio’s rejected plan for the Rialto. Adam’s produced a symmetrical design striped of unnecessary ornamentation but included practical features. The circular windows to provide light for the shop cellars. The middle arch of the bridge is crowned by a large Venetian window. On the road side the corresponding Venetian window contained a glass door, so as preserve the overall design. On either side of this large central window are a row of uniform rectangular windows allowing light to enter the interior space.

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Robert Adam’s Design for the Roadside Shop Fronts

The roadside design was very similar to the riverside view. On either side of the large central Venetian window were three arched openings, containing solid windows and Doric pilasters. Each shop front consisted of a large bay with a narrow bay on either side. The entrance doors were set between each shop front.

The bridge was officially completed in early 1774. Unfortunately work to develop the Bathwick estate and other building work in Bath had to be halted due to more pressing matters such as the American War of Independence.

The building of the Bridge was set with controversy due to Adam being favoured over local architects, the decision to include shops and also the overall cost. When building work resumed in 1788 it was Pulteney’s daughter Henrietta  Laura who employed the City Surveyor Thomas Baldwin to undertake the development on the east side of the river. His designs were mainly in the Palladian style and paid homage to Adam. Building was rapid, which ended in bankruptcy for the builders and again the development was halted.

Originally when the bridge was completed the north and the south side were identical. In 1792 shortly after the death of Adam, work began to alter the bridge. The small shop units were converted into larger units. The roof line was raised to provide higher ceilings and larger windows. This marked the start of many alterations the bridge was to endure.

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View of Pulteney Bridge from the south side

The high floods at the end of September 1799 put a strain on the piers of the centre arch. Buildings over the fracture were removed and contrary to some people’s wishes to fully open up the bridge, Henrietta Laura (now Baroness Bath), employed John Pinch the Elder to repair the damage. Just days after completing the work on the foundation to one of the piers, the other pier collapsed due to further heavy flooding. The damage only effected the north side. Another Act of Parliament was required to rebuild the bridge. Pinch undertook the work in his own style rather than recreating Adam’s design.

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View from West looking towards Great Pulteney Street and Holburne Museum. The Bowed Shop Front left of picture and rebuilt Pavilion on the right

Robert Adam’s original bridge had the four end pavilions with porticoes of Doric columns, arranged in pairs with a wider central opening, the outside columns were closed with balustrades at the base of the column. At some point the columns were removed. When Pinch rebuilt the north side, the pavilions disappeared and one was replaced with a bowed shop front.

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View of Pulteney Bridge from the north side

Over the years the bridge was neglected and shopkeepers built wooden structures to their own design over hanging the river. These structures served as toilets allowing the waste to be deposited directly into the river. The bridge was now an eyesore.

By 1900 there was a new appreciation for Adam and his work. Pulteney Bridge was not an acceptable advertisement for Bath and Adam. In 1903 the Corporation decided the bridge needed to be shortened on the South Side as it protruded to far into the Grand Parade. They purchased and demolished the three shops at the west end. Gill and Morris designed a new pavilion with Adam style recessed arched windows to three sides. This new pavilion was positioned over the end pier.

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The Gill and Morris Pavilion 

The west end section of the bridge was restored, and by 1916 Bath City Council had purchased the east end, though it remained dilapidated. In 1936 the bridge became a scheduled national monument. Plans were put in place to restore the south side to Adam’s design, but this work had to be postponed until well after the war. In 1955 the bridge became Grade 1 listed.

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View of Shops on South Side

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View of Shops on North Side

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North Side of Pulteney Bridge

Sadly the north side remains a mess, but you can still see part of Adam’s design of the triangular pediment over an unmoulded arch.

 

The photos and artwork are from the author’s own collection.

 

Born Out of Penance

Balliol College has a prime location on the busy thoroughfare of Broad Street not far from the Sheldonian Theatre and Weston Library. Balliol is one of the earliest of the 38 constituent colleges of the University of Oxford. It was founded in 1263 as a house for poor scholars financed by John 5th Baron de Balliol, as a penance imposed on him by the Bishop of Durham with whom he had had a dispute. De Balliol was married to Dervorguilla of Galloway who’s family were wealthy and descended from Kings of Scotland. De Balliol had been appointed by Henry III as protector of the 8 year old Alexander III, King of Scotland. Interestingly de Balliol’s son John and grandson Edward went on to become rulers of Scotland. When de Balliol died Dervorguilla continued the payments for the house and granted a charter in 1282, which stipulated that a principal should be chosen by the students from within their group. The students inhabited three tenement buildings located back from Broad Street. During the 15th and 16th centuries the college carried out a building programme, resulting in a quadrangle surrounded by a chapel, library, hall and a fellows hall.

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The Upper Library (Old Hall), Lower Library and Salvin’s Tower – view from the Fellow’s Garden

The early 1790s was a bad time for the college, they were in debt and the buildings were in disrepair. Between 1791-94 James Wyatt who gained the reputation for reviving Gothic architecture, was employed to undertake the supervision of the substantial repairs and alterations that were needed. He replaced the roofs on the Old Hall with a low-pitched design adding a crenellated parapet in a gothic style. Wyatt also carried out internal work in the library, plastering the walls and installing bookcases.

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The Hall and Senior Common Room. 

The college planned to have a garden quadrangle, in order to achieve this some of the already completed buildings needed to be connected and the gaps filled with new buildings. Dr Richard Jenkyns, the Master was contributing a substantial financial amount to the project therefore he asked George Basevi. Basevi did work in the Gothic Revival style which suited the college, but two of the fellows felt his designs tended to be ‘off-the-peg’. Augustus Pugin was approached to give his opinion of the design, which was ‘not bad enough to be ridiculous, nor good enough to be commendable’. The fellows then gave the commission to Pugin. Basevi’s designs was rejected embarrassing both the architect and Jenkyns. Jenkyns was adamant that he would not approve Pugin’s designs, which resulted in arguments and the local press reporting the story. As a result the building committee was dissolved and it was decided to do nothing.

Eventually in the late 1870s Alfred Waterhouse was engaged to start with the building of a new hall and buildings to the east and west of it, on land given to the college by Benjamin Jowett, Regis Professor of Greek and Vice-Chancellor of the University. Waterhouse was the most sort after architect between the 1860s and 1880s. He favoured the Victorian Gothic Revival style, designing ecclesiastical, commercial and public buildings. He designed numerous educational buildings notably for the universities of Manchester, Liverpool, Cambridge and Oxford. The college had retained Pugin’s original designs and Waterhouse consulted the drawings, and elements of these can be seen in the finished building.

Interior Views of the Hall

The Hall is constructed of box ground walling with a Chilmark stone dressing and is grade II listed. Waterhouse’s son Paul was a student of Balliol, obtaining his MA in 1887. He was partner with his father and went on to become President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. It was Paul who undertook alterations to the Hall, panelling and blocking up the lower part of the windows.

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The Chapel in the background

In the 19th century the college consulted William Butterfield, a Gothic Revival architect and follower of the Oxford Movement, with a view to enlarge the 16th century chapel, so it could accommodate the ever increasing student numbers. This chapel had originally replaced an earlier 14th century one. A majority of Butterfield’s work was for religious buildings, though he did design educational ones too. The decision was taken to completely rebuild the church and salvage the windows and other items for reuse. The beginning of 1856 saw the demolition of the chapel, and by August, Butterfield’s polychrome external colour scheme was there for all to see. Though many had reservations about the red and white bands of brickwork, Butterfield had “… little doubt about it when finished.” He continued to use the polychromatic brickwork design long after his fellow architects had abandoned the idea.

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Laurence Stubbs’ Window

Butterfield reused the Laurence Stubbs’ window from the second chapel, but he felt it looked out of place for his new design. He decided that “We must have the best window which has yet been done.” He set to work designing his own window with coloured banding to match the red and white banding of the interior walls, the window was made by Wailes of Newcastle.

The stained glass and the crowned brazen eagle lectern were salvaged from the previous chapel. The silver gilt altar dates from 1927

Butterfield died in 1900 and by 1912 a scheme championed by Strachan-Davidson, the Master, was put forward to completely demolish the chapel. Walter Morrison was happy to donate £20,000 for the demolition and rebuilding of a replacement. But several of the fellows felt that this would be a misuse of money, and would go against their belief in using funds to insure the admission of poor students, especially when the chapel was serviceable. Unfortunately the college and the poor students lost out on Morrison’s money and instead retiring professors were the beneficiaries. The college’s solution was to plaster over the interior to hide the bands, and to reinstate the Laurence Stubbs’ window. Later they replaced the stalls with a walnut design by Walter Tapper. Butterfield’s final humiliation, in 1940 his iron screen was scrapped for the war effort.

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Balliol’s Black Mulberry Tree

There are several stories as to the origin of this ancient tree. Some say it was planted by Queen Elizabeth I or possibly King Charles II. But as King James I decreed that Mulberry Trees should be planted to help establish an English silk industry, it is more than likely the tree dates from this period. Unfortunately the trees planted were black mulberries, and it was the white mulberry leaves that the silk worm eats. This mulberry tree, even though it is bent with age, still manages to produce a crop of mulberry fruit.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

“Our roots were never struck so deeply as at Pisa…”

Pisa is a Tuscan city located on the River Arno, close to the Ligurian Sea. The city was one of the many stopping points on the Grand Tour. The tour was seen as the practical part of a young gentleman’s education, to visit various locations to experience the architecture and art at first hand. Pisa became home for Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, “Our roots were never struck so deeply as at Pisa...”. It was here that Shelley gathered his Utopian Circle of friends. When Elizabeth Barrett Browning left Pisa to return to Florence, her regret was that she had not climbed the Leaning Tower.

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Battistero and Duomo 

The beautiful buildings of the Piazza Dei Miracoli are testament to a time when Pisa was an important maritime republic, and a commercial centre with trading links to the entire Mediterranean and Northern Africa. Pisa had been an important naval base from Roman times until the fleet was eventually defeated by the Genoese at the Battle of Meloria and the port was destroyed.

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Duomo and Campanile

The Duomo was begun in 1064 by the architect Buscheto di Giovanni Giudice to commemorate the naval victory near Palermo, which took place in 1063. It is clad in alternate bands of green and cream marble, which was to influence the style of future churches throughout Tuscany. The Duomo was dedicated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II to Santa Maria Assunta. It was later enlarged between 1120 and 1125.

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Duomo’s 13th Century Facade

In the 13th century the facade was completed by the architect Rainaldo who designed a tomb for Buscheto on the left hand side of the facade. It is constructed of white Carrara marble, which incorporates coloured sandstone, glass and majolica plates. There knots, flowers and animals in the inlaid marble. The four tiers of loggias include statues of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John on each corner, and the Madonna and Child at the top.

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Battistero di San Giovanni

“…the Baptistry of San Giovanni, built of pure white marble and cover’d with so artificial a cupola the voice uttered under it seemed to break out of a cloud.”

John Evelyn

The Battistero di San Giovanni was designed by the architect Diotisalvi as a cylindrical building, instead of the usual octagonal design. The construction of the first level started in 1152 of white Carrara marble in the Romanesque style. After his death the design was changed by Niccola Pisano, who together with his son Giovanni, built the Gothic middle loggia level. The cupola roof was added in 1365 to complete the building. This domed roof covered the coned shaped upper section creating an amazing acoustic space.

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Torre Pendente

“a horrible but an astonishing object”  

Robert Adam

All the buildings lean to some extent as a result of the soft, pliable stratum of clay and sand; and their lack of substantial foundations. But the Campanile has become famous for it’s very noticeable lean. This region of Italy is vulnerable to earthquakes, and the fact that they have been built on this unstable surface has absorbed the vibrations and insured their survival.

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Campanile

Construction of the Romanesque style Campanile was started in 1173, it’s architect is not recorded but it is believed that the first phase is the work of Bonanno Pisano. After his death he was buried at the base of the Campanile. This first phase was halted in 1178 when they reached the 4th gallery and the tower had started to lean. The construction of the second phase resumed in 1272, and is attributed to Giovanni di Simone who tried to correct the lean, by building the stories taller on the shorter side to compensate. Unfortunately the extra weight caused the tower to sink further into the ground and increase the lean. This phase was completed in 1278.

Bell Chamber and Bells

The bell chamber and final phase was started in 1360 by Tommaso Andrea Pisano, it is smaller in diameter than the rest of the tower and houses seven large bells. This phase was completed in 1399 and four original columns had to be replaced due to the lean. In 1993 the bells were silenced because experts were concerned the vibration could affect work to stop it from collapsing.

The tower was built of San Giuliano marble which has been gradually replaced with white Carrara marble. Only 33 of the original pillars of the open galleries remain, these are on the north-eastern side. The tower was 60 meters tall but now it is 56.67m on the highest side and 55.86m on the shortest side.

Previous work over the centuries to correct or stabilise the lean had all been unsuccessful. In 1990 the tower was closed to the public and work started in 1993 to safeguard the tower, which had a 5.4 meter lean. By 2008 it had been stabilised and the lean reduced by 0.5 degrees. By 2011 restoration to the interior and exterior stonework was completed.

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There are 251 very worn steps to the top

During World War 2 my father was called up in 1940 and joined the Essex Regiment. He served in Egypt, Iran and Iraq before being assigned to 17 Brigade Indian Army Ordinance Corp. Because my father spoke Hindi he was transferred in April 1943 to the 8th Indian Division with officer status. The Division was based in Damascus training in mountainous warfare ready for the invasion of Italy. In September they landed in Tarranto Italy fighting their way up to Monte Cassino, Assisi, Rome and Florence and in the New Year of 1945 they rested in Pisa. My father often talked about sleeping in tents beneath the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

An Architectural Gem

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When we build, let us think that we build forever

John Ruskin

This Victorian Gothic Revival house is Grade I listed and situated near Wraxall, North Somerset. At the heart of this picturesque building is a Georgian house which over the course of several years was transformed and emerged as something befitting a family of the richest commoner in England.

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William Gibb (1790-1875)

William Gibbs convinced British farmers of the merits of using the nitrate rich guano as a fertiliser. This was achieved with his pamphlet published in 1843 after he had brought the first shipment to Britain from South America. This risky business venture was a success and made him incredibly rich. It was these proceeds which allowed him to purchase Tynes Place, finance its alterations as well as acquiring surrounding land. The property became his country home because of its proximity to Bristol for easy access to London. He retained a London home and carried on conducting his business from the capital.

When Gibbs married Matilda Blanche Crawley-Boevey (known as Blanche), he joined a family who were ardent followers of the Oxford Movement (Tractarian Movement), this was to play an important part in their lives. This influence was evident in the remodelling of their country home and their philanthropic work. They built or extended churches, educational buildings and institutions. Many of these projects they fully funded and actively participated in their design.

In 1854 Gibbs commissioned John Gregory Crace to undertake the redecoration of their London home as well as Tyntesfield House, as it was now called. Crace’s firm had a excellent reputation, Crace and his father had worked on Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace. John Crace later worked with Pugin on the interiors of the Palace of Westminster. This Gothic style was what Gibbs wanted. The work on the interior involved cleaning, repairing, painting, wallpapering and supplying new items of furniture. Gibbs negotiated a 7% discount and paid by instalments, which were completed January 1856.

In 1860 Gibbs invited the architect John Norton to Tyntesfield this lead to a commission to enlarge the house. The builder George Plucknett of William Cubitt & Co joined the team in 1861 and the planning process took the next two years. Norton was known for his Gothic architecture, he had designed several churches and was commissioned to use his talents on large country houses. His brief was to extend the house by seemlessly joining the old with the new, the work started in 1863.

Staircase Hall

John Norton’s remodelling of the Staircase Hall produced a statement piece for the house. He insterted a glazed Gothic lantern supported with English Oak beams in the roof in order to lighten this otherwise dark space. The newel posts  are of griotte and green Irish marble, ophicalcite from County Galway. The balustrade glided wrought iron’s Gothic pattern is similar to the grille surrounding the organ pipes in the Chapel at Exeter College Oxford. Crace stencilled the walls with a geometric floral patterns in green tones.

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The Staircase Hall’s incredible Gothic fireplace designed by Norton of carved Mansfield stone. The statues are of Maltese stone depicting Temperance, Fortitude, Justice and Prudence.

Library

Norton’s design for the library was based Giles Gilbert Scott’s Upper Library at Exeter College Oxford. The clear glass Gothic window stones are edged with Minton tiles. Unfortunately they can not be seen in this photo as the blinds are kept drawn to protect the interior. The fireplace is of Bath Stone with native polished stones. In the centre is an ogee arch carved with leaves, and on either side are a pair of twisted dark-red Cornish Serpentine columns.

Chapel

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O.N. Thwaite’s model of the Chapel

At last in 1873 work began on the their own chapel designed by the eminent church architect Sir Arthur Blomfield and built by the trusted George Plucknett of William Cubitt & Co, which would hopefully insure continuity with the original extension. Unfortunately they were later replaced by G. W. Booth as builders.

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The stained glass windows were designed by Henry Ellis Wooldridge and made by James Powell & Sons of Whitefriars. They also made the marble mosaic floor of blue faience, Mexican onyx and bluejohn from Blomfield’s design. The mosaics behind the altar are by Salviati & Co of Venice depicting St Paul, St Peter, St John and St James. The brass eagle lectern, chandeliers and communion rail are by James Laver of Maidenhead.

Blomfield’s design was based on the magnificent Sainte-Chapelle in the Palais de la Cite in Paris. It was consecrated just before Gibbs died in 1875 and it was left to Blanche to complete the work in 1876-7. Sadly though the Chapel had a Crypt for the family burials it has never been used. Seen as a possible rival to the local church the Bishop of Bath and Wells withheld consecration, until William Gibbs agreed that regular parochial services would not take place and no one could be buried in the Crypt, but memorials could be hung on the walls.

Blanche carried on with the building work until her death in 1887, and then the  estate passed to their son Antony. Each generation continued to work on the house and fill the interior with furniture and beautiful works of art. As with all country houses the two world wars and death duties took their toll. Antony’s grandson George Richard, known as Richard Gibbs, 2nd Baron Wraxall, was the last family to live in the house, he did not marry or have any children. The property suffered bomb damage during the war and was turned down for a repair grant. Over the next fifty years the house deteriorated and eventually Richard was living in just three rooms until his death in 2001. Richard left the estate and money to the children of his brother and half sister, who by majority could decide whether it should be sold. The National Trust launched an appeal and raised funds to buy and secure the future of the house, kitchen garden and the park. The remaining land and properties were purchased by various organisations and individuals.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

 

 

 

 

 

Dreaming of Angels

 

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Bath Abbey West Front at Night

The beautiful grade 1 listed Bath Abbey Church of St Peter and St Paul is the last great cathedral to be built in Britain, on the site of two previous religious buildings. The first was an Anglo-Saxon monastery and convent, which also included an Abbey Church. Towards the end of the 11th century the bishopric was moved from Wells to Bath, and plans were put in place to enlarge the monastery. The Abbey Church was replaced with a large Cathedral that had been consecrated by the 1160s. This Cathedral was vast, and evidence of its size and location can be found under the present Abbey’s floor and the surrounding pavement area.

During the 13th century the bishopric had transferred back to Wells, and the monks were reliant on the wool trade to maintain this extensive complex of buildings. The monks became idle and disobedient, neglect of the buildings allowed them to fall into a state of ruin. In 1495 Oliver King became the new Bishop of Bath and Wells. Four years later he visited Bath and had a dream of a ladder with angels ascending and descending, and at the foot was an olive tree supporting a crown. He also heard a voice say ‘Let an olive establish the crown and a king restore the church’. He believed this was a sign to rebuild the Abbey. He had the dilapidated Cathedral torn down and building work started on the Abbey. The work was undertaken by the royal stonemasons Robert and William Vertue. When the walls were almost erected it was decided to vault the choir ceiling. Unfortunately Bishop King died in 1503 and was buried in Wells as his Abbey was unfinished.

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Rebus on the West Front

It was popular in the Middle Ages to use a Rebus to depict a person’s name in picture form. On the West front of the Abbey can be seen the Rebus for Bishop Oliver king. A mitre surmounting an Olive tree circled by a crown.

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The Turrets are Decorated by Ladders with Angels Climbing to Heaven and Topped by Two-Panelled Stages

After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the Abbey remained unfinished. Later when Bath’s fortunes were changing and it was a fashionable spa town, it needed a large church to administer to the increased number of visitors. Queen Elizabeth I visited in 1574 and granted permission for a national collection to raise funds for its completion.

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North side of the Abbey

The Cruciform Abbey was built of Bath Limestone ashlar, although Clipsham Stone was used to repair parts of the building in about 1900.

When James Montague the new Bishop of Bath and Wells was appointed in 1608, he provided £1000 for workman and lead from the Mendip mines for the nave roof. Local benefactors provided the timber for the roof and glazing for the windows. It was his brother Sir Henry Montague who presented the beautiful carved oak west doors in 1617. James Montague was now the Bishop of Winchester and when he died in 1618 he was buried in Bath Abbey according to his wishes.

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Sir Henry Montague’s West Door with the inscription:

Ecce quad bonus et quad jucundum est (Behold how good and pleasing it is)

The next important phase in the Abbey’s life was the ten year restoration work, which started in 1864. The Rector, Reverend Charles Kemble appointed the architect Sir George Gilbert Scott to undertake the work and complete the Vertue brothers’ fan vaulting.

On the left the Chancel Roof’s Magnificent Fan Vaulting the Work of the Vertue Brothers, on the right Sir George Gilbert Scott’s Version 

During Scott’s restoration work he relocated the 617 memorials, which were attached to the nave pillars, they are now fixed to the main walls. Not all of the people immortalised on the memorials are actually buried in the Abbey. He also installed central heating, which required removing the ledger stones from the floor, many of these stones were badly worn from the years of human traffic. When they were replaced, they were not necessary in their original location and some were cut to fit.

The Wall Memorials Commemorating the Ordinary and the  Extraordinary 

During the Baedeker Raids of April 1942 the East window was blown out, the stained glass was collected and stored until after the war. The restoration work took ten years undertaken by father and son, Harry and Ron Kirk. They were employed by the London firm of Clayton and Bell, Michael Farrar-Bell’s great grandfather originally worked on the window during Scott’s restoration.

The East Window

The Tower Tours allows visitors to go behind the scenes of the Abbey, and experience the best views of Bath.

The Tenor Bell, Behind the Clock Face, Oldest Graffiti and the Beautiful City of Bath

Bath Abbey will always be connected to us as a family. My daughter and I both had our graduation ceremonies at the Abbey. My son works as a Tower Tour Guide.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

A Jewel in Oxford’s Crown

Gilbert Sheldon, The Archbishop of Canterbury commissioned Christopher Wren to create a suitably spectacular building to hold the Acts of Graduation, that were usually held in St Mary’s Church. It was William Laud who originally voiced the idea of a secular building for university ceremonies. Sheldon resurrected the idea when he succeeded to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury in 1663. Sheldon gave £1,000 to open the proceedings and construction started in 1664, taking five years to complete. He had hoped to gather sponsors for the enterprise, but unfortunately he was unsuccessful and went on to personally contribute most of the funds. It was originally built to provide a venue for public ceremonies and to house the university printing press. In 1713 Oxford University Press moved to the Clarendon Building.

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The Sheldonian Theatre

This was Wren’s second major commission; the first was the chapel at Pembroke College, Cambridge. The theatre was designed to provide the maximum internal space. The roof spanned a 21.35 metres by 24.38 metres auditorium without supporting columns. He used five oak trusses to span the roof; each truss consisted of seven interlocking timbers held together by scarf-joints, bolts and plates, and supported by three posts. The work to construct this amazing roof was undertaken by master-carpenter Richard Frogley, who was regularly employed by the university.  The original roof had oval dormer windows, which can be seen in the early engravings. These were removed in 1801 when George Saunders rebuilt the roof. Wren’s central cupola was replaced in 1838 with a much larger one designed by Edward Blore.

Thomas Robinson the master-mason who built the theatre to Wren’s design, employed his three sons and several other families. He used locally sourced limestone from Headington, Burford, and Barrington quarries. Prior to the 18th century the Headington stone was used for most of the buildings in the city. Unfortunately it did not stand the test of time and weathered badly. During the 19th century sections of the exterior were refaced with Bath Stone on the east, west and north side; Clipsham was used for the bay on the south-west corner. In the 1950s urgent external work was necessary for repairing the stonework; including rebuilding the parapet and balustrade.

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The Boundary Wall 

The original fourteen Termains (Terminus was the Roman God of boundaries), which surround the theatre were designed by Wren and carved by William Byrd, a mason and stonecutter. They were carved in limestone from the Headington Quarry located to the east of Oxford. It is now a residential and conservation area. Not long after their completion one was removed to make way for the construction of the Clarendon Building.

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A Clipsham limestone Termain

The stone deteriorated and the thirteen heads were replaced in 1868, unfortunately the poor quality replacements lost their facial details. Between 1970 and 1972 sculptor Michael Black together with two assistants, carved a third set of busts from Lincolnshire Clipsham limestone.

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Ceiling Fresco

The ceiling fresco is an early example of English illusionist decoration, and consists of thirty two oil on canvas panels painted by Robert Streater, Serjeant Painter to Charles II. Each painting is bordered by gilded cords in homage to the classical architecture of Roman. The fresco depicts Truth descending upon the Arts and Sciences and expelling Ignorance from the university. In 2004 the fresco was removed for restoration, which took four years. The frescos have been repaired or restored on three previous occasions by Tilly Kettle (1762), William Delamotte (1802), and in 1826. The villainous figure of Ignorance was obscured when the organ housing was installed in 1876.

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Sir Thomas Jackson’s organ housing dating from 1876

 

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The Vice-Chancellor’s Throne, the work of Richard Cleer

The interior woodwork and staircases were the work of Richard and Arthur Frogley. The elaborate wainscotting and woodcarving were undertaken by William and Richard Cleer in London, and transported to Oxford by barge.

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The Provost’s Rostrum, the work of Richard Cleer

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Interior set up for a concert

In the 1930s steel supports were inserted into the timber galleries around the auditorium. The first electrical power and lighting was also introduced during this period. It was later updated in the 1960s when the Georgian sash windows were replaced with oak windows similar to Wren’s original design. In 2010 the lighting was improved and the interior received a new paint scheme to restore Wren’s original design.

The Grade I listed Sheldonian Theatre is now an important venue for concerts and lectures, as well as fulfilling its original purpose as a secular building for university ceremonies.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.