An Architectural Gem

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When we build, let us think that we build forever

John Ruskin

This Victorian Gothic Revival house is Grade I listed and situated near Wraxall, North Somerset. At the heart of this picturesque building is a Georgian house which over the course of several years was transformed and emerged as something befitting a family of the richest commoner in England.

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William Gibb (1790-1875)

William Gibbs convinced British farmers of the merits of using the nitrate rich guano as a fertiliser. This was achieved with his pamphlet published in 1843 after he had brought the first shipment to Britain from South America. This risky business venture was a success and made him incredibly rich. It was these proceeds which allowed him to purchase Tynes Place, finance its alterations as well as acquiring surrounding land. The property became his country home because of its proximity to Bristol for easy access to London. He retained a London home and carried on conducting his business from the capital.

When Gibbs married Matilda Blanche Crawley-Boevey (known as Blanche), he joined a family who were ardent followers of the Oxford Movement (Tractarian Movement), this was to play an important part in their lives. This influence was evident in the remodelling of their country home and their philanthropic work. They built or extended churches, educational buildings and institutions. Many of these projects they fully funded and actively participated in their design.

In 1854 Gibbs commissioned John Gregory Crace to undertake the redecoration of their London home as well as Tyntesfield House, as it was now called. Crace’s firm had a excellent reputation, Crace and his father had worked on Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace. John Crace later worked with Pugin on the interiors of the Palace of Westminster. This Gothic style was what Gibbs wanted. The work on the interior involved cleaning, repairing, painting, wallpapering and supplying new items of furniture. Gibbs negotiated a 7% discount and paid by instalments, which were completed January 1856.

In 1860 Gibbs invited the architect John Norton to Tyntesfield this lead to a commission to enlarge the house. The builder George Plucknett of William Cubitt & Co joined the team in 1861 and the planning process took the next two years. Norton was known for his Gothic architecture, he had designed several churches and was commissioned to use his talents on large country houses. His brief was to extend the house by seemlessly joining the old with the new, the work started in 1863.

Staircase Hall

John Norton’s remodelling of the Staircase Hall produced a statement piece for the house. He insterted a glazed Gothic lantern supported with English Oak beams in the roof in order to lighten this otherwise dark space. The newel posts  are of griotte and green Irish marble, ophicalcite from County Galway. The balustrade glided wrought iron’s Gothic pattern is similar to the grille surrounding the organ pipes in the Chapel at Exeter College Oxford. Crace stencilled the walls with a geometric floral patterns in green tones.

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The Staircase Hall’s incredible Gothic fireplace designed by Norton of carved Mansfield stone. The statues are of Maltese stone depicting Temperance, Fortitude, Justice and Prudence.

Library

Norton’s design for the library was based Giles Gilbert Scott’s Upper Library at Exeter College Oxford. The clear glass Gothic window stones are edged with Minton tiles. Unfortunately they can not be seen in this photo as the blinds are kept drawn to protect the interior. The fireplace is of Bath Stone with native polished stones. In the centre is an ogee arch carved with leaves, and on either side are a pair of twisted dark-red Cornish Serpentine columns.

Chapel

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O.N. Thwaite’s model of the Chapel

At last in 1873 work began on the their own chapel designed by the eminent church architect Sir Arthur Blomfield and built by the trusted George Plucknett of William Cubitt & Co, which would hopefully insure continuity with the original extension. Unfortunately they were later replaced by G. W. Booth as builders.

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The stained glass windows were designed by Henry Ellis Wooldridge and made by James Powell & Sons of Whitefriars. They also made the marble mosaic floor of blue faience, Mexican onyx and bluejohn from Blomfield’s design. The mosaics behind the altar are by Salviati & Co of Venice depicting St Paul, St Peter, St John and St James. The brass eagle lectern, chandeliers and communion rail are by James Laver of Maidenhead.

Blomfield’s design was based on the magnificent Sainte-Chapelle in the Palais de la Cite in Paris. It was consecrated just before Gibbs died in 1875 and it was left to Blanche to complete the work in 1876-7. Sadly though the Chapel had a Crypt for the family burials it has never been used. Seen as a possible rival to the local church the Bishop of Bath and Wells withheld consecration, until William Gibbs agreed that regular parochial services would not take place and no one could be buried in the Crypt, but memorials could be hung on the walls.

Blanche carried on with the building work until her death in 1887, and then the  estate passed to their son Antony. Each generation continued to work on the house and fill the interior with furniture and beautiful works of art. As with all country houses the two world wars and death duties took their toll. Antony’s grandson George Richard, known as Richard Gibbs, 2nd Baron Wraxall, was the last family to live in the house, he did not marry or have any children. The property suffered bomb damage during the war and was turned down for a repair grant. Over the next fifty years the house deteriorated and eventually Richard was living in just three rooms until his death in 2001. Richard left the estate and money to the children of his brother and half sister, who by majority could decide whether it should be sold. The National Trust launched an appeal and raised funds to buy and secure the future of the house, kitchen garden and the park. The remaining land and properties were purchased by various organisations and individuals.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

 

 

 

 

 

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An Oasis of Calm

Nestling amongst the angular shapes of 20th century architecture is a haven of peace   brought about by war.

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Temple Church

“The City of Churches had in one night become the city of ruins.”

Lord Mayor, Alderman Thomas Underwood

During World War II Bristol become a target for the Luftwaffe. As one of the main ports with rail connections and an important industrial centre it was the victim of six major bombing raids between the 24th November 1940 and 11th April 1941. 89,080 buildings were damaged or destroyed, 1,299 people were killed and 1,303 were seriously injured.

On Sunday 24th November 1940, 148 aircraft of the Luftwaffe left Northern France en route for the city docks and the aeroplane factory. 135 aircraft reached Bristol dropping 156,250 kg of high explosive bombs, 4,750 kg oil bombs and 12,500 incendiaries. The Mediaeval centre was the victim of this six hour raid, four ancient churches were reduced to ruins, including the Temple Church.

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View from Temple Gardens

In the 1130s the Order of the Knights Templar, a monastic order founded for the protection of pilgrims while on route to Jerusalem, built a monastery in Bristol on land donated by Robert, Earl of Gloucester. The Templars built their churches round in homage to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, which is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. Though round church architecture was not unique to Templars. The Round Church in Bristol was known as the Holy Cross and the capital for the Order in the South West.

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Excavated foundation location of the original 12th century Rotunda

During the Crusades the Templars travelled from Bristol to Europe and the Mediterranean as financiers, entrepreneurs and military. The church was enlarged and the area was an important business centre for the woollen trade. By the early 14th century the Knights Templar had lost their reputation and fallen out of favour. In 1313 the Holy Cross Church was transferred to the Knights Hospitaller, another military order. They carried out new building work on the church, transforming it into a rectangular church and adding two rectangular chapels. St Nicholas on the South side and St Catherine on the North side. It was Edward I who granted the Bristol Company of Weavers their own chapel in the Temple Church, St Catherine is the patron saint of weavers. St Catherine was also a saint venerated by the Templars.

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The first three stages of the bell tower were built in the late 1390s but unfortunately it began to lean westwards, due to the alluvial clay subsoil, as a result work stopped. In 1460 the stone masons strengthened the foundations and completed the final stage, allowing for the lean so that it would appear vertical. Their work has proved to be unsuccessful and the tower leans 1.6 meters from the vertical.

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View the of the leaning tower and the Portland stone Gothic Revival archway  located on Temple Street off of Victoria Street 

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 Rear view of the Portland stone Gothic Revival archway

The porch of the church can be found via a grade II listed Portland Stone Gothic Revival archway, with a pair of wrought iron gates in the wider central arch. Above the centre arch is a carving of the Agnus Dei, the Lamb of God, on a shield hanging from a ring. This visual imagery denotes a past connection to both military orders.

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An octagonal stair turret on the left between the north aisle and the nave, extending up behind the round-arched doorway 

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Mid-Georgian porch to the nave with Corinthian pilasters. Round-arched doorway with an acanthus key

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Above the Corinthian pilasters is a segmental pediments with a cartouche inside and an urn on the top

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Decorated traceried windows in the long Chancel with the St Catherine’s chapel to right and St Nicholas to the left

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The embattled south aisle with large early perpendicular windows

The church was built of Pennant rubble, a native stone of the Bristol area. The exterior walls are dressed with Bath stone ashlar and is now preserved as an open shell; the roof and the glass perished in the Blitz. The only relics savaged from the ruins were a medieval candelabrum, one of only fifteen surviving from this period. It now resides in the Berkeley Chapel Bristol Cathedral. The font and a 15th century bell are located at the Holy Cross Church (21st C) Filwood Park Bristol. The 18th century Sword-Rest and the wrought-iron parclose screens from the side chapels can be found in the Lord Mayor’s chapel of St Mark’s Hospital Church Bristol. These items were made by William Edney the renowned Bristol blacksmith, his work can also be seen in St Mary Redcliffe.

The Temple Church was the first parish church to be owned by the Ministry of Works as an Ancient Monument and listed as Grade II*. The management of the church was transferred to English Heritage in 1984. The churchyard was given to the City of  Bristol as a public park in 1955. It contains the remnants of a lime tree avenue, which was planted in the 18th century when the church was refurbished. The Temple Gardens with its roses and trees is an oasis of calm to escape the busy city.

 

The photos and artwork are from the author’s own collection.