Born Out of Penance

Balliol College has a prime location on the busy thoroughfare of Broad Street not far from the Sheldonian Theatre and Weston Library. Balliol is one of the earliest of the 38 constituent colleges of the University of Oxford. It was founded in 1263 as a house for poor scholars financed by John 5th Baron de Balliol, as a penance imposed on him by the Bishop of Durham with whom he had had a dispute. De Balliol was married to Dervorguilla of Galloway who’s family were wealthy and descended from Kings of Scotland. De Balliol had been appointed by Henry III as protector of the 8 year old Alexander III, King of Scotland. Interestingly de Balliol’s son John and grandson Edward went on to become rulers of Scotland. When de Balliol died Dervorguilla continued the payments for the house and granted a charter in 1282, which stipulated that a principal should be chosen by the students from within their group. The students inhabited three tenement buildings located back from Broad Street. During the 15th and 16th centuries the college carried out a building programme, resulting in a quadrangle surrounded by a chapel, library, hall and a fellows hall.

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The Upper Library (Old Hall), Lower Library and Salvin’s Tower – view from the Fellow’s Garden

The early 1790s was a bad time for the college, they were in debt and the buildings were in disrepair. Between 1791-94 James Wyatt who gained the reputation for reviving Gothic architecture, was employed to undertake the supervision of the substantial repairs and alterations that were needed. He replaced the roofs on the Old Hall with a low-pitched design adding a crenellated parapet in a gothic style. Wyatt also carried out internal work in the library, plastering the walls and installing bookcases.

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The Hall and Senior Common Room. 

The college planned to have a garden quadrangle, in order to achieve this some of the already completed buildings needed to be connected and the gaps filled with new buildings. Dr Richard Jenkyns, the Master was contributing a substantial financial amount to the project therefore he asked George Basevi. Basevi did work in the Gothic Revival style which suited the college, but two of the fellows felt his designs tended to be ‘off-the-peg’. Augustus Pugin was approached to give his opinion of the design, which was ‘not bad enough to be ridiculous, nor good enough to be commendable’. The fellows then gave the commission to Pugin. Basevi’s designs was rejected embarrassing both the architect and Jenkyns. Jenkyns was adamant that he would not approve Pugin’s designs, which resulted in arguments and the local press reporting the story. As a result the building committee was dissolved and it was decided to do nothing.

Eventually in the late 1870s Alfred Waterhouse was engaged to start with the building of a new hall and buildings to the east and west of it, on land given to the college by Benjamin Jowett, Regis Professor of Greek and Vice-Chancellor of the University. Waterhouse was the most sort after architect between the 1860s and 1880s. He favoured the Victorian Gothic Revival style, designing ecclesiastical, commercial and public buildings. He designed numerous educational buildings notably for the universities of Manchester, Liverpool, Cambridge and Oxford. The college had retained Pugin’s original designs and Waterhouse consulted the drawings, and elements of these can be seen in the finished building.

Interior Views of the Hall

The Hall is constructed of box ground walling with a Chilmark stone dressing and is grade II listed. Waterhouse’s son Paul was a student of Balliol, obtaining his MA in 1887. He was partner with his father and went on to become President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. It was Paul who undertook alterations to the Hall, panelling and blocking up the lower part of the windows.

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The Chapel in the background

In the 19th century the college consulted William Butterfield, a Gothic Revival architect and follower of the Oxford Movement, with a view to enlarge the 16th century chapel, so it could accommodate the ever increasing student numbers. This chapel had originally replaced an earlier 14th century one. A majority of Butterfield’s work was for religious buildings, though he did design educational ones too. The decision was taken to completely rebuild the church and salvage the windows and other items for reuse. The beginning of 1856 saw the demolition of the chapel, and by August, Butterfield’s polychrome external colour scheme was there for all to see. Though many had reservations about the red and white bands of brickwork, Butterfield had “… little doubt about it when finished.” He continued to use the polychromatic brickwork design long after his fellow architects had abandoned the idea.

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Laurence Stubbs’ Window

Butterfield reused the Laurence Stubbs’ window from the second chapel, but he felt it looked out of place for his new design. He decided that “We must have the best window which has yet been done.” He set to work designing his own window with coloured banding to match the red and white banding of the interior walls, the window was made by Wailes of Newcastle.

The stained glass and the crowned brazen eagle lectern were salvaged from the previous chapel. The silver gilt altar dates from 1927

Butterfield died in 1900 and by 1912 a scheme championed by Strachan-Davidson, the Master, was put forward to completely demolish the chapel. Walter Morrison was happy to donate £20,000 for the demolition and rebuilding of a replacement. But several of the fellows felt that this would be a misuse of money, and would go against their belief in using funds to insure the admission of poor students, especially when the chapel was serviceable. Unfortunately the college and the poor students lost out on Morrison’s money and instead retiring professors were the beneficiaries. The college’s solution was to plaster over the interior to hide the bands, and to reinstate the Laurence Stubbs’ window. Later they replaced the stalls with a walnut design by Walter Tapper. Butterfield’s final humiliation, in 1940 his iron screen was scrapped for the war effort.

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Balliol’s Black Mulberry Tree

There are several stories as to the origin of this ancient tree. Some say it was planted by Queen Elizabeth I or possibly King Charles II. But as King James I decreed that Mulberry Trees should be planted to help establish an English silk industry, it is more than likely the tree dates from this period. Unfortunately the trees planted were black mulberries, and it was the white mulberry leaves that the silk worm eats. This mulberry tree, even though it is bent with age, still manages to produce a crop of mulberry fruit.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

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“Our roots were never struck so deeply as at Pisa…”

Pisa is a Tuscan city located on the River Arno, close to the Ligurian Sea. The city was one of the many stopping points on the Grand Tour. The tour was seen as the practical part of a young gentleman’s education, to visit various locations to experience the architecture and art at first hand. Pisa became home for Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, “Our roots were never struck so deeply as at Pisa...”. It was here that Shelley gathered his Utopian Circle of friends. When Elizabeth Barrett Browning left Pisa to return to Florence, her regret was that she had not climbed the Leaning Tower.

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Battistero and Duomo 

The beautiful buildings of the Piazza Dei Miracoli are testament to a time when Pisa was an important maritime republic, and a commercial centre with trading links to the entire Mediterranean and Northern Africa. Pisa had been an important naval base from Roman times until the fleet was eventually defeated by the Genoese at the Battle of Meloria and the port was destroyed.

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Duomo and Campanile

The Duomo was begun in 1064 by the architect Buscheto di Giovanni Giudice to commemorate the naval victory near Palermo, which took place in 1063. It is clad in alternate bands of green and cream marble, which was to influence the style of future churches throughout Tuscany. The Duomo was dedicated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II to Santa Maria Assunta. It was later enlarged between 1120 and 1125.

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Duomo’s 13th Century Facade

In the 13th century the facade was completed by the architect Rainaldo who designed a tomb for Buscheto on the left hand side of the facade. It is constructed of white Carrara marble, which incorporates coloured sandstone, glass and majolica plates. There knots, flowers and animals in the inlaid marble. The four tiers of loggias include statues of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John on each corner, and the Madonna and Child at the top.

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Battistero di San Giovanni

“…the Baptistry of San Giovanni, built of pure white marble and cover’d with so artificial a cupola the voice uttered under it seemed to break out of a cloud.”

John Evelyn

The Battistero di San Giovanni was designed by the architect Diotisalvi as a cylindrical building, instead of the usual octagonal design. The construction of the first level started in 1152 of white Carrara marble in the Romanesque style. After his death the design was changed by Niccola Pisano, who together with his son Giovanni, built the Gothic middle loggia level. The cupola roof was added in 1365 to complete the building. This domed roof covered the coned shaped upper section creating an amazing acoustic space.

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Torre Pendente

“a horrible but an astonishing object”  

Robert Adam

All the buildings lean to some extent as a result of the soft, pliable stratum of clay and sand; and their lack of substantial foundations. But the Campanile has become famous for it’s very noticeable lean. This region of Italy is vulnerable to earthquakes, and the fact that they have been built on this unstable surface has absorbed the vibrations and insured their survival.

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Campanile

Construction of the Romanesque style Campanile was started in 1173, it’s architect is not recorded but it is believed that the first phase is the work of Bonanno Pisano. After his death he was buried at the base of the Campanile. This first phase was halted in 1178 when they reached the 4th gallery and the tower had started to lean. The construction of the second phase resumed in 1272, and is attributed to Giovanni di Simone who tried to correct the lean, by building the stories taller on the shorter side to compensate. Unfortunately the extra weight caused the tower to sink further into the ground and increase the lean. This phase was completed in 1278.

Bell Chamber and Bells

The bell chamber and final phase was started in 1360 by Tommaso Andrea Pisano, it is smaller in diameter than the rest of the tower and houses seven large bells. This phase was completed in 1399 and four original columns had to be replaced due to the lean. In 1993 the bells were silenced because experts were concerned the vibration could affect work to stop it from collapsing.

The tower was built of San Giuliano marble which has been gradually replaced with white Carrara marble. Only 33 of the original pillars of the open galleries remain, these are on the north-eastern side. The tower was 60 meters tall but now it is 56.67m on the highest side and 55.86m on the shortest side.

Previous work over the centuries to correct or stabilise the lean had all been unsuccessful. In 1990 the tower was closed to the public and work started in 1993 to safeguard the tower, which had a 5.4 meter lean. By 2008 it had been stabilised and the lean reduced by 0.5 degrees. By 2011 restoration to the interior and exterior stonework was completed.

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There are 251 very worn steps to the top

During World War 2 my father was called up in 1940 and joined the Essex Regiment. He served in Egypt, Iran and Iraq before being assigned to 17 Brigade Indian Army Ordinance Corp. Because my father spoke Hindi he was transferred in April 1943 to the 8th Indian Division with officer status. The Division was based in Damascus training in mountainous warfare ready for the invasion of Italy. In September they landed in Tarranto Italy fighting their way up to Monte Cassino, Assisi, Rome and Florence and in the New Year of 1945 they rested in Pisa. My father often talked about sleeping in tents beneath the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

 

The photos are from the author’s own collection.

An Oasis of Calm

Nestling amongst the angular shapes of 20th century architecture is a haven of peace   brought about by war.

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Temple Church

“The City of Churches had in one night become the city of ruins.”

Lord Mayor, Alderman Thomas Underwood

During World War II Bristol become a target for the Luftwaffe. As one of the main ports with rail connections and an important industrial centre it was the victim of six major bombing raids between the 24th November 1940 and 11th April 1941. 89,080 buildings were damaged or destroyed, 1,299 people were killed and 1,303 were seriously injured.

On Sunday 24th November 1940, 148 aircraft of the Luftwaffe left Northern France en route for the city docks and the aeroplane factory. 135 aircraft reached Bristol dropping 156,250 kg of high explosive bombs, 4,750 kg oil bombs and 12,500 incendiaries. The Mediaeval centre was the victim of this six hour raid, four ancient churches were reduced to ruins, including the Temple Church.

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View from Temple Gardens

In the 1130s the Order of the Knights Templar, a monastic order founded for the protection of pilgrims while on route to Jerusalem, built a monastery in Bristol on land donated by Robert, Earl of Gloucester. The Templars built their churches round in homage to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, which is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. Though round church architecture was not unique to Templars. The Round Church in Bristol was known as the Holy Cross and the capital for the Order in the South West.

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Excavated foundation location of the original 12th century Rotunda

During the Crusades the Templars travelled from Bristol to Europe and the Mediterranean as financiers, entrepreneurs and military. The church was enlarged and the area was an important business centre for the woollen trade. By the early 14th century the Knights Templar had lost their reputation and fallen out of favour. In 1313 the Holy Cross Church was transferred to the Knights Hospitaller, another military order. They carried out new building work on the church, transforming it into a rectangular church and adding two rectangular chapels. St Nicholas on the South side and St Catherine on the North side. It was Edward I who granted the Bristol Company of Weavers their own chapel in the Temple Church, St Catherine is the patron saint of weavers. St Catherine was also a saint venerated by the Templars.

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The first three stages of the bell tower were built in the late 1390s but unfortunately it began to lean westwards, due to the alluvial clay subsoil, as a result work stopped. In 1460 the stone masons strengthened the foundations and completed the final stage, allowing for the lean so that it would appear vertical. Their work has proved to be unsuccessful and the tower leans 1.6 meters from the vertical.

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View the of the leaning tower and the Portland stone Gothic Revival archway  located on Temple Street off of Victoria Street 

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 Rear view of the Portland stone Gothic Revival archway

The porch of the church can be found via a grade II listed Portland Stone Gothic Revival archway, with a pair of wrought iron gates in the wider central arch. Above the centre arch is a carving of the Agnus Dei, the Lamb of God, on a shield hanging from a ring. This visual imagery denotes a past connection to both military orders.

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An octagonal stair turret on the left between the north aisle and the nave, extending up behind the round-arched doorway 

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Mid-Georgian porch to the nave with Corinthian pilasters. Round-arched doorway with an acanthus key

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Above the Corinthian pilasters is a segmental pediments with a cartouche inside and an urn on the top

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Decorated traceried windows in the long Chancel with the St Catherine’s chapel to right and St Nicholas to the left

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The embattled south aisle with large early perpendicular windows

The church was built of Pennant rubble, a native stone of the Bristol area. The exterior walls are dressed with Bath stone ashlar and is now preserved as an open shell; the roof and the glass perished in the Blitz. The only relics savaged from the ruins were a medieval candelabrum, one of only fifteen surviving from this period. It now resides in the Berkeley Chapel Bristol Cathedral. The font and a 15th century bell are located at the Holy Cross Church (21st C) Filwood Park Bristol. The 18th century Sword-Rest and the wrought-iron parclose screens from the side chapels can be found in the Lord Mayor’s chapel of St Mark’s Hospital Church Bristol. These items were made by William Edney the renowned Bristol blacksmith, his work can also be seen in St Mary Redcliffe.

The Temple Church was the first parish church to be owned by the Ministry of Works as an Ancient Monument and listed as Grade II*. The management of the church was transferred to English Heritage in 1984. The churchyard was given to the City of  Bristol as a public park in 1955. It contains the remnants of a lime tree avenue, which was planted in the 18th century when the church was refurbished. The Temple Gardens with its roses and trees is an oasis of calm to escape the busy city.

 

The photos and artwork are from the author’s own collection.